Friday, June 25, 2010

POETRY

POETRY
 A type of literature

that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)

POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY
POET The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.

POETRY FORM
FORM - the appearance of the words on the page LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day.

KINDS OF STANZAS
Couplet Triplet (Tercet) Quatrain Quintet Sestet (Sextet) Septet Octave = = = = = = = a two line stanza a three line stanza a four line stanza a five line stanza a six line stanza a seven line stanza an eight line stanza

SOUND EFFECTS

RHYTHM
The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.

METER
 A pattern of stressed and unstressed

syllables.
 Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed

syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern.  When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They they repeat the pattern throughout the poem.

METER cont.
FOOT - unit of meter. A foot can have two or three syllables. Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. TYPES OF FEET The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables. (cont.)

METER cont.
TYPES OF FEET (cont.) Iambic - unstressed, stressed Trochaic - stressed, unstressed Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed

METER cont.
Kinds of Metrical Lines
monometer dimeter trimeter tetrameter pentameter hexameter heptameter octometer = = = = = = = = one foot on a line two feet on a line three feet on a line four feet on a line five feet on a line six feet on a line seven feet on a line eight feet on a line

RHYME
Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. LAMP STAMP
¬ Share the short “a”

(A word always rhymes with itself.)

vowel sound ¬ Share the combined “mp” consonant sound

END RHYME
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.

INTERNAL RHYME
A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.
From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe

NEAR RHYME
a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH ROSE LOSE
¬ Different vowel

sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound) ¬ Share the same consonant sound

RHYME SCHEME
A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).

Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)

SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME
The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. a a b b c c a a


ONOMATOPOEIA
Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .”

ALLITERATION
Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?

CONSONANCE
Similar to alliteration EXCEPT . . . The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words “silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . “

ASSONANCE
Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme.) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound.)

ASSONANCE cont.
Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.” - John Masefield “Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.” - William Shakespeare

REFRAIN
A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem. “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’”

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

SIMILE
A comparison of two things using “like, as than,” or “resembles.” “She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”

METAPHOR
A direct comparison of two unlike things “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.” - William Shakespeare

EXTENDED METAPHOR
A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work.


IMPLIED METAPHOR
The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated. “The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it.” - from The Pearl - by John Steinbeck

Hyperbole
Exaggeration often used for emphasis.

Litotes
Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic. Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”

Idiom
An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.

PERSONIFICATION
An animal given humanlike qualities or an object given life-like qualities.
from “Ninki” by Shirley Jackson “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.

OTHER POETIC DEVICES

SYMBOLISM
When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = Innocence

=

America

=

Peace

Allusion
Allusion comes from the verb “allude” which means “to refer to” An allusion is a reference to something famous.
A tunnel walled and overlaid With dazzling crystal: we had read Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave, And to our own his name we gave. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier


IMAGERY
Language that appeals to the senses. Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell.
then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather . . . from “Those Winter Sundays”

So then…
What the frac is poetry?

SOME TYPES OF POETRY WE WILL BE STUDYING

SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme. The poem is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet. The rhyme scheme is
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometimes declines, By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall Death brag thou wanderlust in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

abab cdcd efef gg

NARRATIVE POEMS
A poem that tells a story. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. Examples of Narrative Poems “The Raven” “The Highwayman” “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter”

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