Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Analisis Poetry

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


1. Background of the Study

Literature is simply another way we can experience the world through imagination (Jones, 1968:1). The contents of literature are such various things as the author’s thoughts, feeling, ideas, motion, and experience that become human interest.
Literature is divided into several form such as prose, drama and poetry that later developed to a poem. A poem is a kind of literary work written in verse, which has more things or material to explain, to make clear, to understand, to shape the new mind, and to give sense on the reality of life. Many kinds of definition offered when talking about that word. Many researchers and scientists give the meanings of poems based on the experience and the deep of knowledge that they have. Although the definition is very various, but it will give a point and will play an important role in order to help the people in understanding the poem.
Poetry is the kind of written literature, which is arranged in lines and in certain patterns. There are two definitions of poetry given by Abrams (1979:292). First, poetry is literary work in metrical from of patterned language. Second, poetry is the art of rhyme composition, written of spoken, designed to produce pleasure through beautiful, elevated, and imaginative of profound thoughts.
As far as the literary works concerned, poetry is possibly the most difficult of all. The cause is that poetry has special characteristics that are not generally found in prose (Volpe, 1967). First, the normal word orders of ordinary speech are often inverted in poetry, deletions or omission of some words orders other than the correct, conventional ones. These kinds of inversion, omission may cause difficulties for the readers to understand the message of the poem. Second, it is the diction. The words applied in the poetry tend to be more connotative than that in prose. This tendency is also supported by the common wide use of imaginary or figurative word such as metaphors. Such features of diction in poetry serve other difficulties for the readers because the sense of the word is in the specific meaning in a given context.
Diction is an aspect in poetry. The term diction is literally defined as the choice and use of word. However, this term has a broader sense in the literature. Abrams (1960:163), states that the term diction signifies the kind of words, phrases, sentence structure, and figurative language that constitute any work of literature.
Diction is the word chosen by the poet to express his ideas and his feeling. A word in a poem is used not only to connect between the reader and the poet, but also support an image and for connecting between the reader and the poet’s world imagination. Diction refers to the language of a poem, and how each word is chosen to convey a precise meaning. Poets are very deliberate in choosing each word for each word for its particular effect, therefore, so it is important to know the origins and connotations of the words in a poem, not to mention their literal meaning too (www. soyouwanna. com/site/syws/poem/poemfull).
When we ask about the diction of a poem, we are asking the stylistic and tonal qualities of the words that the poet has chosen. We are concerned with the vocabulary of the poems. A good diction begins with this process of selection. In discussing diction, we are much more interested in the selection of the words than in the exact ways in which these words are presented. Analyzing diction, is no more than examining the appropriateness of the vocabulary within a given poem (Reaske, 1966:31-32).
Poetic diction is the terms used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/poetic-diction). Words create mood context, and for this purpose old sounding, old-fashioned or obsolete words have often been employed, even by the greatest of poets. Nonetheless, in its cultivation of an egalitarian, conversational style, contemporary poetry avoids what it terms a “poetic diction” as something that harks back to earlier traditions, especially those of “fine writing” (http://bcs. bedfordstmartins. com/victualit/poetry/diction_def. html).
The poetry of most ages has been written in a distinctive language, a “poetic diction”, which includes words, phrasing, and figures that are not current in the ordinary discourse of the time. In modern discussion, the term poetic diction is applied especially to poets who intentionally employ a diction that deviates not only from common speech, but also from the writing. In the frequent use, meanwhile, poetic diction is applied to the poetry of a specific literary period to denote the special style developed in the period (Abrams, 169:163).
We may see the diction is often used in many poems. There are many poets reflect their feeling, their loneliness, or write their own life in poems. One of the poets is Robert Lee Frost that was an American poet. His work frequently drew inspiration from rural life in New England, using the setting to explore complex social and philosophical themes. A popular and often-quoted poet, Frost was highly honored during his lifetime, receiving four Pulitzer Prizes.
Robert Lee Frost was one of America’s leading 20th century poets. Although his verse forms are traditional, he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythms and meter and in the poetic use of the vocabulary and inflections of everyday speech. His poetry is thus traditional and experimental, regional and universal (www. lieteratureclassics. com/essay/RobertFrost’slife/html).
In 1912, at the age of 38, he sold the Derry farm and took his family to England, where he could devote himself to writing. His efforts to establish himself and his work were almost immediately successful. There he published his first collection of poems, A Boys Will. It was followed a year later by North of Boston (1914), which gained international reputation. The collection contains some of Frost’s best-known poems: Mending Wall, The Death of The Hired Man, Home Burial, A Servant to Servants, After Apple Picking, and The Wood-Pile. The poems, written with blank verse or looser free verse of dialogue, were drawn from his own life, recurrent losses, everyday tastes, and his loneliness (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/RobertFrost’slife&works).
This study discusses about kinds of diction in some of Robert Frost’s poems most of which are traditional poetry. For these reason, the writer is interested in analyzing the diction especially on the Robert Frost’s poems.




1. 2 Problem of the Study

1. What kinds of diction on Robert Frost’s poems?
2. What is the most dominant of diction on Robert Frost’s poems?

1. 3 Purpose of the Study

1. To find out the kinds of diction on Robert Frost’s poems.
2. To know what is the most dominant of diction on Robert Frost’s poems.

1. 4 Significant of the Study

The results of this study are expected to be able to provide readers with the kinds of poetic diction of Robert Frost’s poems. The researcher hopes that the readers may easily understand the theme, contents, and the messages of Robert Frost’s poems.
Furthermore, this study is written with the idea that it will be useful for students of Gajayana University, especially for literature students. The writer hopes they can learn more on analysis diction in poem and can appreciate the Robert Frost’s poems.

1. 5 Scope and Limitation

Several values can be found in poetry such as imagery, figurative language, rhyme, rhythm, and diction. This study scopes the discussion dealing with the kinds of the diction in some of Robert Frost’s poems.
The limitation is the researcher cannot interact with the poet. Therefore, all of the results of the study are based on the theories used by the researcher. Hence, the results of the study are not perfect enough.


1. 6 Theoretical Framework

The study is based on the following theories. Abrams (1969:163) states that the term diction signifies the kinds of words, phrases, sentences structure and figurative languages that constitute any work of literature.
Diction is the process of using a word in poetry. When we ask about the diction of a poem, we are inquiring into the stylistic and tonal qualities of the words that the poet has chosen. We are concerned with the vocabulary of the poems. A good diction begins with this process of selection. In discussing diction, we are much more interested in the selection of the words than in the exact ways in which these words are presented. Analyzing diction, is no more than examining the appropriateness of the vocabulary within a given poem (Reaske, 1966:31-32).
Poetic diction is the terms used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/poetic-diction). Words create mood context, and for this purpose old sounding, old-fashioned or obsolete words have often been employed, even by the greatest of poets. Nonetheless, in its cultivation of an egalitarian, conversational style, contemporary poetry avoids what it terms a “poetic diction” as something that harks back to earlier traditions, especially those of “fine writing” (http/bcs. bedfordstmartins. com/victualit/poetry/diction_def. html).

1. 7 Definition of Key Term

In order to avoid unexpected misunderstanding toward the terms widely used in this study, the following are the definitions of the terms:

1. Diction is the word chosen and arranged, then the meaning of the words can create an aesthetic imagination and the result of this is called diction of the poet (Barfield in Pradopo, 1987:54).
2. Poetic diction is the term used to refer to the linguistic style, the vocabulary, and the metaphors used in the writing of poetry (http/en. wikipedia. org/wiki/poetic-diction, June 09, 2007).
3. Poetry is composed of carefully chosen words expressing great depth of meaning (http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html).
4. A poem is a piece of writing arranged in lines, used with a regular rhythm and often with a pattern of rhymes (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, New Edition. p. 318).







CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


In this chapter the theories that are relevant with the study will be reviewed. It consists of the theories about poetry, diction, functions of diction, kinds of diction, kinds of meaning, and figures of speech. It also reviews some related research.
2. 1 Poetry

Poetry relies most on the power of words and in sense it is the most literary of all branches of literature; the most literary because it makes the greatest use of the raw material of literature, which is word (Wilson, 1987:10).
Poetry is a kind of work written in beautiful language and has certain patterns or elements that cannot find in another works. To read the poems, we sometime gets difficulties to catch the meaning or message in them. As stated by Jones (168:89) that most people find poetry difficult to read and much of the poetry is indeed difficult to read. It places demands on the reader. Almost anyone who can read poetry, but to get pleasure from poetry he must bring something to his reading. One can learn what it is, learn how to read it, practice it, and so gain the pleasure from it.

Poetry sometime is made for different reasons. Therefore, each poem has a different purpose. Reaske (1966:8) states that we should understand at the outset that poetry can be written for different reason and therefore each poem has a different purpose. Some poems are written purely to entertain us, others solely for the purpose of moral persuasion. We are urged perhaps to right action or perhaps to wrong action. We are tempted or told to resist temptation. Many poems try to be both entertaining and instructive, both amusing and edifying at the same time. Whenever we analyze a poem, we must consider, as best we can, the purposes the poet had in writing it (Reaske, 1966:8).
Poetry uses language that even adds more difficulties for the readers to catch its messages. It is because it uses much more connotative words than in prose. Like another works, poetry has certain elements. So, there are the elements of poetry according to Jones, (1968:96). They are:

a. Title. Usually the title of a poem gives us an idea of what the poem is about. It may tell names of person, place, or thing. Title helps us in our understanding of the poem.
b. Theme. Each poem is written to serve a particular purpose. It may entertain by telling a story. It may set forth the poet’s views on a subject, or it may enforce a moral or teach a special truth. Whatever its purpose, a poem is built upon emotion. The theme is actually a combination or synthesis of many ideas.
c. Rhythm. Rhythm is the very basic of poetry. Rhythm is the wave like a pattern of sound. It is the natural rise and fall of language. Most English words are spoken with the stress in certain syllables. Rhythm is the repetition of the pattern.
d. Rhyme. Rhyme is the repetition of the sound of the last word in two or more lines of poetry.
e. Sounds. Some sound give us pleasure, some do not. Some may call music, other noise. For example, most of us heard a piece of chalk squeak across a blackboard. To most of us it is not a pleasant sound.
f. Diction. Talking about diction, we inquire into the stylistic and tonal qualities of the word chosen by the poet. Diction is concerned with the vocabulary of the poem.
g. Tone. Tone is the writer’s attitude toward the subjects, the mood created all elements in poetry. Tone is the author’s evident attitude toward his works, his audience or himself. It is emotional coloring or the emotional meaning. Therefore, it is important part of the full meaning of a work.
h. Imagery. All of us experience the world through our senses. An image is a sense experience, and imagery is a representation in words of sense experience.
i. Symbol. A symbol is something that means more than what it is fact. A poet in his efforts to heighten our emotion and broaden our experience often uses symbol.

2. 2 Diction

Reaske (1966:31-32) states that the diction is the process of using a word in poetry. When we ask about the diction of a poem, we are inquiring into the stylistic and tonal qualities of the words that the poet has chosen. We are concerned with the vocabulary of the poems. A poet should always try to select the word that most appropriately conveys his intended meaning. A good diction begins with this process of selection. In discussing diction, we are much more interested in the selection of the words than in the exact ways in which these words are presented. Analyzing diction, is no more than examining the appropriateness of the vocabulary within a given poem. Abrams (1960: 163) states that the term diction signifies the kinds of words phrases, sentence structure, and figurative language that constitute any work of literature.
By diction is meant simply the author’s choice of words. Our purpose in the analysis of diction is to recognize the choices the author has made and to infer when possible the reasons for which the choices have been made. Our assumption is that any choice may be significant and the sum of the choices in whole work will certainly be so, as we turn our attention from the diction of a brief passage to that of an entire story or novel. We look for the author’s guiding principles of selection. We may undertake the same kind of investigation of the diction in the total body of a writer’s work, seeking to discover what kind of choice the writer habitually makes and for what reason (Kenney, 1966:60).
Diction or the choice of word is defined as a skill to differentiate the nuances of the meaning of ideas needed to express accurately. The diction is related to the meaning of words. First, it is related to choosing the right meaning of words to express ideas. Second, diction is connected with the usage of a group of words effectively in connection with how to express the ideas. Third, diction is related with a certain style of language that is appropriate with the context (Keraf in Yuri, 2002:9).
Diction is one of the aspects in poetry. Dictions are the words chosen by the poet to express his ideas and his feeling. A word in a poem is used not only to connect between the reader and the poet, but also support an image and for connecting between the reader and the poet’s world imagination. Diction refers to the language of a poem, and how each word is chosen to convey a precise meaning. Poets are very deliberate in choosing each word for each word for its particular effect, so it is important to know the origins and connotations of the words in a poem, not to mention their literal meaning too (www. soyouwanna. com/site/syws/poem/poemfull).
Diction is a writer’s choice of words, phrases, sentence structures, and figurative language, which combine to help create meaning. Formal diction consists of a dignified, impersonal, and elevated use of language; it follows the rules of syntax exactly and is often characterized by complex words and lofty tone. Middle diction maintains correct language usage, but is less elevated than formal diction; it reflects the way most educated people speak. Informal dictions represent, slang, contractions, and many simple common words. Poetic diction refers to the way poets sometimes employ an elevated diction that deviates significantly from the common speech and writing of their time, choosing words for their supposedly inherent poetic qualities. Since the eighteenth century, however, poets have been incorporating all kinds of diction in their work, and so there is no longer an automatic distinction between the language of a poet and the language of everyday speech. (http://web. cocc. edu/lisal/literaryterms/d_h. htm/Diction).

2. 3 The Function of Diction

Diction is use to create effectiveness on the language activity. For the writer, diction is use to express his ideas and wishes to other people. For the reader, diction is use to occupy other people ideas, mind, and also wish. (Keraf in 1994:21) said that word is an idea distribution. Then Keraf explained that they know many ideas or in other words, they have many vocabularies, can easily and fluently communicate with others.
Beside of those opinions, Arifin (1987:13) said that the used of the right words will help someone to express about what he wants to express, either written or spoken. In this case, the choosing of words must be appropriate with the situation and place where the words are used.
From all opinions above about the function of diction, it can conclude that the function of diction is to create effectiveness of the language activity, which done by someone to convey the people’s idea.

2. 4 Kinds of Diction

Kinds of diction is classified to five groups, there are: connotative diction, denotative diction, concrete diction, associative diction, and imaginative diction (Kenney 1966:60-61, Reaske 1966:29-31, Wellek and Warren, and Sayuti in Dwi, 2002:15):

2. 4. 1 Connotative Diction

Connotation is created when you mean something else, something that might be initially hidden. The connotative meaning of a word is based on implication or shared emotional association with a word. There are many words that denote approximately the same thing, but their connotations are very different. Innocent and genuine both denote an absence of corruption, but the connotations of the two words are different: innocent is often associated with a lack of experience, whereas genuine is not. Connotations are important in poetry because poets use them to further develop or complicate a poem’s meaning (soyouwanna. com/site/syws/poem/poemfull. , June 09, 2007).)
Connotation is the emotions, thoughts and ideas associated with and evoked by the word. Some words are neutral, but can have negative or positive connotations. For example, the word island is neutral when it refers to a vacation on a Greek island, the word has positive connotation. When it describes being shipwrecked on an island, the word has negative connotations. Also, words associated with smell can be either positive or negative. For example, “scent’ is positive, while “odor” is negative (Developed by Vivion Smith, adapted from work by Susan Giansanti, Jules Nelson Hill and Ellen Beck).
Reaske (1966:29) states that connotative is one of the various implications or associations that a word carries. Most words have many connotations. If we say “home” for example, we are not simply naming a house, but rather an idea – having members of a family joined in one place. A poet uses the connotations of a word to his own purposes and advantages. Kenney (1966:60-61) states that a word’s connotations are the suggestions and associations aroused by it.
Connotation-An Example from Poe: The American Edgar Allan Poe is a very different sort of writer. Here is the first sentence of his famous story “The Fall of the House of Usher” (Kenney, 1966:62-63).
“During the whole of a dull, dark and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horse-back, through a singularly dreary tract of country, and at length found myself, as the shades of evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher”.
The diction here is characterized by the vagueness denotation. Just how low is “oppressively low”? What, precisely, does a “dreary tract of country” look like? And how can a house be “melancholy” since the dictionary meaning of the adjective has to do with a human emotional state.
In short, Poe is choosing his words primarily for their connotations, for their suggestive power. His method is, in itself, as legitimate as Swift’s and as suited to the demands of his story and his temperament (Kenney, 1966: 62-63).

2. 4. 2 Denotative Diction

A word’s denotation is simply its dictionary meaning (Kenney, 60-61). Reaske (1966:31) states that denotation is the essential meaning of the word. As contrasted with connotation – the suggested or possible meanings of a word denotation has reference only to what is conventionally understood by a word. The denotative meaning of a word is thus void of any emotional or subjective overtones. When examining any word, a critic should differentiate between its denotative and its connotative meanings.
The distinction between denotation and connotation is that the latter reveals attitudes about an object or event but the former does not. These attitudes may be favorable or unfavorable. In “That is a cute hat” and “That is an absurd hat”, the word “hat” is used denotatively in both sentences, but “cute” has favorable and “absurd” unfavorable connotations. Some words, such as cute, brave, efficient, fame, glory, hope, and valuable usually have only favorable connotations. Others, such as absurd, callous, hate, idiotic, lust, treason, and vicious usually have only unfavorable connotations. Still others have favorable connotations in some contexts but unfavorable ones in others. Compare, for example, free enterprise and free speech with free thinker and free love, or a fat check with a fat girl (Crimmon, 130-131).
Denotative-An Example from Swift: The diction of Guilliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift may seem to take little advantage of the suggestive powers of language. Here, for instance, is a passage describing the Emperor of Liliput (Kenney, 1966:60-61):
He is taller, by almost the breadth of my nail, than any of his court, which alone is enough to strike an awe into the beholders. His features are strong and masculine, with an Austrian lip and arched nose, his complexion olive. His countenance erect, his body and limbs well proportioned, all his motions graceful, and his deportment majestic.
This is about as close to pure denotation as we can expect a passage of prose fiction to come. The meaning of the passage is little more than the sum total of the dictionary meanings of the words that make it up.

2. 4. 3 Concrete Diction

Concrete diction has characteristic to present description, thing, or certain moment description concretely.
In poetry, symbols are concrete and recognizable; they are as emblematic and visual as images are sometimes only suggestive and even vague. Some symbols have been used again and again and thus by this use have become “archetypes” in literature (Reaske, 1966:109). In another hand, the abstract ideas often presented through the concrete objects as a symbol. Every poet tries to concrete thing that he wants to express the reader’s imagine like what he means. The exactness of the poet in concreting the words that will make the reader sees, listens, and feels what the poet described.
Concrete diction refers to words that stimulate some kind of sensory response in the reader; as we read the words, we can imaginatively use our senses to experience what the words represent http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/concretediction/Poetry. And concrete words include below:

Concrete words include: Dog, Cat, Computer, Classroom, Tree, Candy Bar, Car, Chair, Department Store, Pencil, Hat, Clock, Rain, Ice Cube, Beer, etc.
The word “dog” is a concrete word; we are able to form a mental picture of it. Because concrete diction imaginatively appeals to the senses, it tends to involve readers more than abstract diction does.

2. 4. 4 Associative Diction

Association diction has characteristic to arise the readers’ consciousness to the others of words which have relation. Wellek and Warren (1990:219) stated that the meaning of poetry is contextual; each word is not only taken the dictionary meaning but also the synonym and homonym circle. The word not only has certain meaning but also arise the readers’ consciousness to the other words, which have related with sound or the meaning of those words.
Because it has relation with the reader activity that actually associated to unlimited characteristics, that is why every words have association characteristics. However, the context still will become the control that limit the association alternative occurs. Another hand, association occurs because of that context.
An example of associative diction (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Poetic-diction).








“Harlem”

What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up
Like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore-
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over-
Like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags
Like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?
(Langston Hughes)

In this poem uses the words like or as, or a verb like seems or appears to draw two objects or images into a relationship (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Poetic-diction).

2. 4. 5 Imaginative Diction

Imaginative diction is a word which have characteristic to present the description of certain situation with imagination. Language in poetry is used to present the certain situation with imagination. The words that already choose are used for a certain situation, so the reader can imagine.
Example: some lines from John Donne’s poem “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” (Reaske, 1966:30-31):

Our two souls therefore, which are one,
Though I must go, endure not yet
A breach, but an expansion,
Like gold to airy thinness beat.

If they be two, they are two so
As stiff twin compasses are two,
Thy soul the fixt foot, makes no show
To move, but doth, if th’other do.

And though in the center sit,
Yet when the other far doth roam,
It leans and hearkens after it,
And grows erect as that comes home.

Such wilt thou be to me who must,
Like th’other foot, obliquely run;
Thy firmness makes my circle just,
And makes me end where I begun.

In this poem’s Donne imagines that the souls of himself and his mistress are like the two legs of a drawing compass; when one moves in a certain way the other, though remaining stable, leans toward the leg that moves, and yet draws it back to the beginning. This is very imaginative and constitutes an intellectualized way of saying that he and his mistress are one-but not quite one (Reaske, 1966:30-31).

2. 5 Kinds of Meaning

When we talk about the meanings of words, it is helpful to distinguish between two types of meaning: the one we find in a dictionary definition of a word-its denotation-and type of meaning that arises from the various associations-connotation- the words evokes. The words we use just to name things often have little connotative meaning. For example, tree represents a physical thing, as do the words flower, car, ship, and cow. These words denote the things they stand for. (Bridges and Lunsford, 1984:315).

2. 5. 1 Denotative Meaning

Kenney states that the analysis of diction leads to some consideration of denotations and connotations of word chosen by the author. A word denotation is simply its dictionary meaning; its connotations are the suggestions and associations arouse by it. A number of different words may have essentially the same denotations, while differing significantly in their connotations (Kenney, 166:60).
The statement or the situation in which a word is used is called its context. In practice we learn the meanings of words by their contexts. When we are learning our language we do not meet the word “run” by itself; we always meet it in some situation – a man running for a bus, a child running a temperature, a quarterback running a team, and so on. We learn the meaning of “run” by repeatedly experiencing it in context. This is exactly how the writers of dictionaries get their definitions. They gather sample contexts and write the definitions to describe the meanings these convey, so that when a dictionary lists different meanings for the word “spring”, it is recording the contexts in which “spring” most frequently occurs (Crimmon, 1963:128).
To illustrate the relationship between context and meaning, suppose you were editing a dictionary and had found for “man” and “make up” the following contexts recurring in your samples. For each the two terms, write as many definitions as your samples require. Then check your dictionary to see if it records your definitions. If it does not, consider whether your definitions or the dictionary’s are deficient (Crimmon, 1963:129).

2. 5. 2 Connotative Meaning

In literary usage, the denotation of word is its primary significance or reference, such as a dictionary mainly specifies; its connotation is the rage of secondary or associated significances and feelings which it commonly suggest or implies. Thus “home” denotes the house where are lives, but connotes privacy, intimacy, and coziness; that is the reason real estate agents like to use “home” instead of “house” in their advertisements. “Horse” and “steed” denote the same quadruped, but “steed” has a different connotation, deriving from the chivalric or romantic narratives in which this word was often used. The connotation of word is only a potential range of shard secondary significance; which on these connotations are evoked depends on the way a word is used in particular contexts which bring into play some part of the connotative meaning of words. In his poem “Virtue” George Herbet wrote.
Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright,
The bridal of the earth and sky…
The denotation of “bridal”- a union between human beings-serves as part of the ground for applying the word as a metaphor to the union of earth and sky; but the specific poetic context in which the word occurs also evokes such connotations of “bridal” as sacred, joyous, and ceremonial. (Abrams, 1981:36).

2. 6 Figures of Speech

Figures of speech are devices in which two images or objects are compared to make language interesting and meaningful. The poet uses common expressions in original and creative ways to compare objects and makes the poem more interesting and meaningful. There are fourteenth kinds example of figures of speech:


.1 Simile: A comparison that uses the words like or as or a verb like seems or appears to draw two objects or images into a relationship.
Example: Your eyes are as blue as the sky.
You eat like a bird.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html , June 09, 2007).

.2 Metaphor: Functions the same way simile does, except that the comparison is more implied and the words like or as are omitted. The verb to be is used.
Example: Your cheeks are red cherries.
Here, the author does not mean that your cheeks are actually red cherries. Instead, the metaphor simply conveys that your cheeks are the color of cherries: flushes, bright and red.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.3 Personification: A type of metaphor that gives living qualities to inanimate object or abstract ideas; or human qualities (feelings, thoughts) to animals. It gives non-living things and animals the ability to think, feel emotions, or have relationships.
Example: The moon smiles. Fires rage.
The wind vexes the lake and the waves crash angrily.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.4 Anthropomorphism: a kind of personification that gives human attributes to something not human, such as parts of nature, abstract ideas, or in particular, deities.
Example: Referring to the Earth as a maternal figure:
“Mother Earth. ”
Referring to a ship as a female:
“She rides the waves well”
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.5 Paradox: A statement that appears to be absurd, untrue, or contradictory, but may actually be true.
Example: From “Death, Be Not Proud, Though Some Have Called Thee”
“One short sleep past, we wake eternally.
And death shall be no more; death, thou shalt die. ”
(John Donne).
It seems impossible that man could live beyond death, and that death itself could die. However, if one believes in the Christian doctrine, it is possible. The Christian faith teaches that after the body dies, the soul wakes again and lives for eternity. Therefore, if the passage is examined from a Christian perspective, the “impossible” statement becomes true.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.6 Symbolism: when an author uses an object or idea to suggest more than its literal meaning. A person, place or event stands for something other than it is, usually something broader or deeper than it is.
The author intentionally uses symbolism in his/her writing. The author selects specific objects, places or things to function as symbols in his/her work in order to expand and deepen the meaning of the piece. The author trusts that the reader will be skilled enough to notice the symbolism.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.7 Synecdoche: A form of metaphor where one part stands for the whole or the whole is substituted for one part. In order words, we speak of something by naming only a part of it.
Example: “Robby got wheels this summer”.
Wheels = car

“All hands were on deck”.
Hands = sailors
“… the hand that wrote the letter…”
Hand = person
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.8 Metonymy: a play on words based on association. With metonymy, an object is referred to in terms of something closely related to it, yet not actually a part of it. In other words, we comment on something by naming a separate object, but one that is closely associated with the original subject.
Example: Queen Elizabeth controlled the crown for years.
The crown = the monarchy

He has always loved the stage
The stage = the theater

He will follow the cross
The cross = Christianity
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.9 Allusion: a reference made to another literary work, historical event, work of art, or a famous person’s quote that adds more depth to the poet’s meaning. In fact, all poems retelling old stories are allusive. For example, a modern version of Casey and the Bat would allude to the old ballad.
Example: “To an Artist, To Take Heart”
Slipping in blood, by his own hand, through pride,
Hamlet, Othello, Coriolanus fall.
Upon his bed, however, Shakespeare died,
Having outlived them all”.
(Louise Bogan)
These three, Hamlet, Othello, and Coriolanus, are tragic Shakespeare heroes. The first sentence alludes to how the three each died: Hamlet in a duel, Othello by suicide, and Coriolanus by pride. Shakespeare died a less violent death in his bed.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.10 Verbal irony: one meaning is stated, but another, antithetical (opposite and opposed) meaning is intended. This subtle irony is dependent on the author’s word choice.
Example: From “Of Alphas”
No egg on Friday Alpha will eat,
But drunken will he be
On Friday still. Oh, what a pure
Religious man is he!
(Anonymous, 16th Century)
The author does not really mean that Alpha is “pure” and “religious”, in fact, he means the opposite (Simpson: 431). The reader can discern by studying the word choice that the author does not really mean what he appears to be suggesting. Alpha will not eat eggs on Friday, presumably because of the religious rules of the time. He will, however, get drunk. One can assume that getting drunk was not in accordance with the religious rules, and therefore, the author is actually pointing out Alpha’s impurity and sacrilege.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.11 Overstatement (hyperbole): an exaggeration; giving something more or less of a quality than it really has. This term is usually used as a put down, or to discredit what someone is saying.
Example: After so many years, he can still feel the sting of his mother’s
slap.
He cannot literally feel the sting, but the hyperbole conveys that his
mother’s slap was a deeply damaging experience.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

.12 Understatement (litotes, meiosis): saying something with an overly light tone; the speaker’s words convey less emotion than he actually fells.
Example: “I’m really glad that you have come to visitor,” said the spider
to the fly.
The spider is not simply pleased to have a visitor, but is excited to have his next meal trapped in his web.
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).

2. 6. 13 Oxymoron: a form of paradox where two contradictory terms are combined in one phrase.
Example: Cold fire
Darkly lit
Fearful joy
Honest thief
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).


.14 Alliteration: the repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginnings of words that are near each other in a poem.
Example: From “A Bird came down the Walk”
“Than Oars divide the Ocean,
Too silver for a seem
Or Butterflies, off Banks of Noon
Leap, plash less as they swim”
(Emily Dickinson)
(http://depts. gallaudet. edu/englishworks/literature/poetry. html, June 09, 2007).



2. 7 Review of Related Research

Some researchers studied on Robert Frost’s poems or studied about the diction. Tri Handayani (2004) studies Frost’s poems especially on the figurative languages. There are many others figurative language found in Frost’s poems such as metaphor, simile, personification, antithesis, symbol and parallelism. Beside, Erly Ferawati (2004) also studies on the diction but her object is Hello Magazine. She found that to make their works interesting, the poets try to use figurative language and some kinds of word.
Dwi Wardiana Sari (2003) studies diction on Child’s Garden of verses by Robert Louis Stevenson. She states that diction can be classified into four dictions. They are imaginative diction, association diction, connotative diction, and concrete diction. Stevenson has good ability to describe something using those dictions, which make his poems are attractive for children because he really understands the way of the children think.
Then, Dhenas Adi Kristanto (2006) studies diction of William Blake’s poems. According to Dhenas, William Blake has two kinds of the readers. They are the adults and the children. Because he has two kinds of readers, he must have different language used in his poems aimed to the children and the adults, both it is in kinds of words and kinds of meaning. Dhenas states that Blake’s poems dominantly use the popular words and there are many words or sentences containing connotative meaning.

2. 8 Short Biography of Robert Frost

The short biography is taken from (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/robertfrost’slife. html). Robert Lee Frost, b. San Francisco, march, 26, 1874, d. Boston, Jan. 29, 1963, was one of America’s leading 20th century poets and a four time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. An essentially pastoral poet often associated with rural New England, Frost wrote poems whose philosophical dimensions transcend any region. Although his verse forms are traditional he often said, in a dig arch rival, that he would as soon play tennis without a net as write free verse-he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythms and meter and in the poetic use of the vocabulary and inflection of everyday speech. His poetry is thus traditional and experimental, regional and universal.
After his father’s death in 1885, when young Frost was 11, the family left California and Settled in Massachusetts. Frost attended high school in that state, entered Dartmouth College, but remained less than one semester. Returning to Massachusetts, he taught school and worked in a mill and as newspaper reporter. In 1894 he sold “My Butterfly: an Elegy” to The Independent, a New York literary journal. A year later he married Elinor White, they had six children. From 1897 to 1899 he attended Harvard College as a special student but left without a degree. He moved to Derry, New Hampshire, working there as a cobbler, farmer, and teacher at Pinkerton Academy – he held the post for five years – and at the state normal school in Plymouth.
In 1912, at the age of 38, he sold the Derry farm and took his family to England. There he published his first collection of poems, A Boys Will. It was followed by North of Boston (1914), which gained international reputation. The collection contains some of Frost’s best known poems: Mending Wall, The death of the Hired Man, Home Burial, A Servant to Servants, After Apple-Picking, and The Wood Pile. The poem written with blank verse or looser free verse of dialog, were drawn from his own life, recurrent losses, everyday tasks, and his loneliness.
The Frost sailed for United Stated in February 1925 and landed in New York City two days after the U. S publication of North of Boston (the first his books to published in America). Sales of that books and of A Boys Will enabled Frost to buy a farm in Franconia, to place new poems in literary periodicals and publish a third book, Mountain Internal (1923), and to embark on a long career of writing, teaching, lecturing. In 1924 he received a Pulitzer Prize in poetry for New Hampshire. He was lauded again for collected poems (1930), A further Range (1936) and A Witness Tree (1942). Over the years he received an unprecedented number and range of literary, academic, and public honors.
Frost importance as a poet derives from the power and memorability of particular poems. (From North of Boston) combines lyric and dramatic poetry in blank verse. (From the same volume) is a free-verse dream poem with philosophical undertones. (Also published in North of Boston) demonstrates Frost’s simultaneous command of lyrical verse, dramatic conversation, and ironic commentary. (From Mountain Internal) and the oft studied (From New Hampshire) exemplify Frost’s ability to join the pastoral and philosophical modes in lyrics of unforgettable beauty.
The poetic and political conservatism of Frost caused him to lose favor with some literary critics, but his reputation as a major poet is secure. He unquestionably succeeded in realizing his life’s ambition: “a few poems it will be hard to get rid of”.





CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents about the research methodology, which consists of research design, data, data collection and data analysis.

3. 1 Research design
The purpose of this study is to describe the diction used in collection of poems written by Robert Lee Frost. The research design of this study is descriptive method, which is designed to involve describing, recording, analyzing, and interpreting condition that exist (Best, in Herni Susanti, 2005: 29).

3. 2 Data
The data of this research are taken from Robert Frost’s poems in Barnet, Berman and Burto (1993:537-547) and from http://en. wikipedia. org//wiki//frost’spoems. html. The poems are selected randomly. It is necessary to give the code number for all of the poems. It is about 46 poems. Then, those codes number are taken to select 20 samples of those poems. Those selected poems are:


• Stopping by Wood on a Snowy Evening
• Design


• October


•32

• The Telephone
• The Oven Bird
• The Silken Tent
• Desert Place
• Come In
• Once by the Pacific
• Fire and Ice
• In Winter In the Woods Alone
• Reluctant
• The Gift Outright
• Acquainted With the Night
• The Pasture
• The Road Not Taken
• Bereft
• The Draft Horse
• Provide, Provide
• The Need of Being Versed in Country Things



.3 Data Collection


1. Reading and studying the Frost’s poems.
2. Finding the kinds of diction in the Frost’s poems.
3. Finding the most dominant of diction in the Frost’s poems.




.1 Step of the Data Analysis


1. The researcher collects and divides each word and sentences according to the kinds of diction, they are connotative diction, denotative diction, concrete diction, associative diction and imaginative diction.
2. The researcher counts to find the most dominant of diction











CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

To answer the problems of the study, the researcher tries to analyze some of the Robert Frost’s poems by using the theories below about the diction of the poems.
Analysis and Discussion on Kinds of Diction in 20 poems.
On this chapter, the researcher presents 20 poems of the Robert Frost and it will be analyzed of the diction on those poems. The analysis of them is as follows:
Datum 1:
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
Whose woods these are I think I know
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark and deep
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.

35


In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Imaginative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Connotative Diction
• Denotative Diction

Imaginative Diction
2nd stanza in line 5 and 6:
My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near

The poem implies that he pass in the woods and to see a view. It is not only to see a view in the woods but also for his resting place. He is a man that cares with the environment. It would appear that he is not only a scheduled man, cares with the environment but also a convivial one. It is not wondered that his horse would think his actions “queer” why stop there whereas there is nobody in the woods and without a house near. There must be some continuation to the journey.
3rd stanza in line 11 and 12:
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

These sentences can cause the beautiful tranquility of solitude imaginatively. The only sound which can be heard by the person is only the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. There is no other sound except the sounds’ of the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. There is complete silence with the exception of this beautiful sound.
4th stanza line 13 and 14:
The woods are lovely, dark and deep
But I have promises to keep,

The person can not deceive his admiration of the woods that it is restful feel of the poem. The beauty of the woods pleases him although the woods are dark and deep. Actually he wants to stay for a moment but he has promised with someone. So he has to go directly for keep his promises.
Concrete Diction
1st stanza line 7 and line 8:
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year

3rd stanza in line 11 and 12:

The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The poet wants to concrete that he is alone in the woods without anyone, just accompanied by his horse. These sentences in line 7 and 8 can express that he is alone between the woods and frozen lake. Those sentences are supported by sentences line 11 and 12 that the only other sound is the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. However he admires the woods too.
1st stanza in line 3 and 4:
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow
In that poem, the poet wants to present the evening situation in winter which is cold and quite. The word “snow” implies with white color and it covers up the woods. There are piles of snow everywhere and it makes the cold situation in that evening. When the winter comes, there is nobody wants to go outside. The atmosphere is supported by the usage of the words.
Connotative Diction
4th stanza in line 13:
The woods are lovely, dark and deep
The word “deep” does not mean extending a long way from top to bottom. According to the context in this poem, “deep” means very wet because full of the snow. In winter situation the woods usually full of snow and everyone always feel cold and wet. Because of this wet he feels more alone in the wood. He wants to say that it is cold and wet and he needs something to get warm.
Denotative Diction
2nd stanza in line 5, 6, 7 and 8:
My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

When the person is in the woods, he can not easily find a house near. What he sees is just the trees everywhere that are full of snow. Besides, the evening has come when he is there.
4th stanza in line 15 and 16:
The woods are lovely, dark and deep
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.

The final stanza provides the evidence that there will be more to this journey so that he has to go to keep his promises. He is aware that it is not the final destination, although in the woods he gets the restful of feeling.
Discussion:
There are five kinds of diction in this datum, they are, 3 imaginative dictions, 2 concrete diction, 1 connotative diction and 2 denotative dictions.

Datum 2:
Design
I found a dimpled spider, fat and white,
On a white heal all, holding up a moth,
Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth-
Assorted characters of death and blight
Mixed ready to begin the morning right
Like the ingredients of a witch’s broth-
A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth,
And dead wings carried like a paper kite.

What had that flower to do with being white,
The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?
What brought the kindred spider to that height,
Then steered the white moth thither in the night?
What but design of darkness to appall?-
If design govern in a thing so small.

In this poem, there are five kinds of diction:


• Denotative diction
• Connotative diction
• Associative diction
• Imaginative diction
• Concrete diction

Denotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1 and 2:
I found a dimpled spider, fat and white,
On a white heal all, holding up a moth,

It is already a pattern that the stronger is the winner. The stronger can do everything against the weaker. The weaker can not do anything to avoid this reality. If it is lucky, it will survive. Otherwise, it will die.
Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 5:
Assorted characters of death and blight
Mixed ready to begin the morning right
Like the ingredients of a witch’s broth

The word “right” in line 5 has connotative meaning. The word “right” in this poem does not mean what is good, just honorable. The “right” means the brightness. These words mean everything is ready to welcome the brightness in the morning.
2nd stanza in line 12:
What brought the kindred spider to that height,
Then steered the white moth thither in the night?

The word “white moth” in line 12 has connotative meaning. The word “white” has meaning of being pale and weak. After the moth is lamed by spider, it can become weak and can be dying.

Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 6 and 7:
A snow drop spider, a flower like froth
And dead wings carried like a paper kite

“A flower like a froth” in line 7 can cause the association which concern with the destroyed flower. The “froth” does not have a permanent form. The form of froth always changes in a second. The “flower” has a permanent form. So, if it is said “a flower like a froth” means the form of flower is not like the flower again. In another word, the flower is already broken.
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 7, 8, and 9
A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth
And dead wings carried like a paper kite
What had that flower to do with being white

The poet imagines that everything in the world is free to act without being task and scared. They can do anything without think the weakness of others. In fact, in the world everything has already had his own fate and task or responsibility. Not all the stronger is win forever, sometimes they will be lose.
Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 4
Assorted characters of death and blight
What the person feels about life is described concretely. The world is full of human beings with different characters and different fate.


Discussion:
There are five kinds of dictions in this datum; they are 1 denotative diction, 2 connotative dictions, 1 associative diction, 1 imaginative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 3:
October
October
O hushed October morning mild,
Thy leaves have ripened to the fall;
Tomorrow’s wind, if it be wild,
Should waste them all.
The crows above the forest call;
Tomorrow they may form and go.
O hushed October morning mild,
Begin the hours of this day slow.
Make the day seem to us less brief.
Hearts not averse to being beguiled,
Beguile us in the way you know.
Release one leaf at break of day;
At noon release another leaf;
One from our trees, one far away.
Retard the sun with gentle mist;
Enchant the land with amethyst.
Slow, slow!
For the grapes’ sake, if the were all,
Whose leaves already are burnt with frost,
Whose clustered fruit must else be lost-
For the grapes’ sake along the all.

In this poem, there are five kinds of diction:


• Associative Diction
• Connotative diction
• Imaginative diction
• Concrete diction
• Denotative diction

Associative Diction
“O hushed October morning mild” in line 1 and “Thy leaves have ripened to the fall” in line 2 can associate that it is in spring. In spring, the leaves fall down. It is supported by the wind blowing. This can be seen in line 3 “Tomorrow’s wind, if it be wild”. In spring, the time is different from the other season. It feels so long. This can be seen in line 9 “Make the day seem to us less brief.”
Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 15 and 16:
Retard the sun with gentle mist;
Enchant the land with amethyst
The word “amethyst” has connotative meaning. The word does not mean a purple precious stone used in making jewellery. The word “amethyst” means the light of the sun falling on top of leaves look shiny. It seems so beautiful as if the trees shine brightly.
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 12 and 13:
Release one leaf at break of day
At noon release another leaf

He imagines that the beauty of spring can be enjoyed by him without the existing of falling leaves. He can enjoy the beauty of spring. In another hand, the trees suffer from a loss of a lot of leaves. In fact, commonly in spring the trees always fall their leaves down.
Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 7 and 8:
O hushed October morning mild
Begin the hours of this day slow

And in line 19, 20 and 21:
Whose leaves already are burnt with frost
Whose clustered fruit must else be lost-
For the grapes’ sake a long the all

The condition of spring is described concretely. The falling down leaves, the beauty of sun light, and the blow of the wind are described clearly. And leaves or the trees are burnt with frost everywhere.
Denotative Diction
1st stanza in line 3 and 4:
O hushed October morning mild,
Thy leaves have ripened to the fall;
Tomorrow’s wind, if it be wild
Should waste them all

In spring, the falling leaves are scattered around. It makes the land to be dirty. The man should clean of land from falling leaves.
Discussion:
There are five kinds of diction in this datum; they are 1 associative diction, 1 connotative diction, 1 imaginative diction, 1 concrete diction, and 1denotative diction.

Datum 4:
The Telephone
‘When I was just as far as I could walk
From here today,
There was an hour
All still
When leaning with my head again a flower
I heard you talk.
Don’t say I didn’t, for I heard you say--
You spoke from that flower on the window sill-
Do you remember what it was you said?’


‘First tell me what it was you thought you heard. ’

‘Having found the flower and driven a bee away,
I leaned on my head
And holding by the stalk,
I listened and I thought I caught the word--
What was it? Did you call me by my name?
Or did you say--
Someone said “Come” – I heard it as I bowed. ’
‘I may have thought as much, but not aloud. ’
“Well, so I come. ’

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction

Connotative Diction
2nd stanza in line 14 and 15:
I listened and I thought I caught the word”.
What was it? Did you call me by my name?
The used of word “caught” is a connotative diction. It means to understand something that he listened. He understands what the story is talking about.
1st stanza in line 1, 2 and 3:
‘When I was just as far as I could walk
From here today,
There was an hour
The word “an hour” in this poem is connotative diction. The word “an hour” here does not mean a period of an hour. However, it means as period of time when something happened. There is something happened when he just walk in that day.
Associative Diction
2nd stanza in line 10:
First tell me what it was you thought you heard
The poet wants to associate the condition when someone hears someone else’s conversation by phone by chance. Speaking by phone is privacy for the man. He does not want someone else to eavesdrop his talking.
2nd stanza in line 17:
Someone said “come” – I heard it as I bowed
The used of the words “I heard it as I bowed” can cause the association which directly concern with deliberateness. It shows that he does not really intend to find out the content of conversation in phone.
Imaginative Diction
2nd stanza in line 18:
I may have thought as much, but not aloud
In that poem, the poet wants to present the displeasure situation which he does not want to happen. The quite atmosphere is supported by the usage of these words.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum; they are 2 associative diction, 2 connotative diction, and 1imaginative diction.

Datum 5:
The Oven Bird
There is a singer everyone has heard,
Loud, a mid-summer and a mid-wood bird
Who makes the solid tree trunks sound again.
He says that leaves are old and that for flowers,
Mid-summer is to spring as one to ten.
He says the early petal-fall is past
When pear and cherry bloom went down in showers
On sunny days a moment overcast;
And comes that other fall we name the fall.
He says the highway dust is over all.
The bird would cease and be as other birds
But that he knows in singing not to sing.
The question that he frames in all but words
Is what to make of a diminished thing.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction



Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1, 2 and 3:
There is a singer everyone has heard,
Loud, a mid-summer and a mid-wood bird
Who makes the solid tree trunks sound again
The word “sound” is a connotative diction. It does not mean to make especially a musical instrument produce a sound. In this poem, “sound” means “live”. It is because the solid tree trunks can not product sound by instrument equipment. The solid tree trunks only can live and die. The word which is suitable with in this context is live.
1st stanza in line 7 and 8:
When pear and cherry bloom went down in shower
On sunny days a moment overcast;
The word “shower” is a connotative diction too. “Shower” here does not mean do bathing. “Shower” here means fall down.
2nd stanza in line 11 and 12:
The bird would cease and be as other birds.
But that he knows in singing not to sing.

The word “cease” in this poem means “die” according to the context. The bird will be dying like the other bird.
Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 7 and 8:
When pear and cherry bloom went down in shower
On sunny days a moment overcast

The used of these words can cause the association which directly concern with sad feelings. We can see that it is impossible that on sunny days a moment overcast. Sunny indicates a happiness and overcast indicates a sadness. It means that the bird can not enjoy this good time anymore because it already becomes an oven bird. This can be seen:
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza line 9 and 12:
And comes that other fall we name the fall
He says the highway dust is over all.
The bird would cease and be as other birds
But that he knows in singing not to sing

In this poem, the poet wants to express the condition of the oven bird that full of imagination. He knows how to express and present the displeasure and misery are imagination found in this poem.
1st stanza in line 13 and 14:
The question that he frames in all but words
Is what to make of a diminished thing.

In this poem, the poet wants to present the miserable condition of bird which human beings do not want understand because human beings want to eat its flesh. The miserable condition is supported by the usage of these words.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 1 associative diction, 3 connotative diction, and 2 imaginative diction.




Datum 6:
The Silken Tent
She is as in a field a silken tent
At midday when a sunny summer breeze
Has dried the dew and all its ropes relent,
So that in guys it gently sways at ease,
And its supporting central cedar pole,
That is its pinnacle to heavenward
And signifies the sureness of the soul,
Seems to owe naught to any single cord,
But strictly held by none, is loosely bound
By countless silken ties of love and thought
To everything on earth the compass round,
And only by one's going slightly taut
In the capriciousness of summer air
Is of the slightest bondage made aware.

In this poem, there are five kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Denotative Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 5 and 6:
And its supporting central cedar pole,
That is its pinnacle to heavenward

The words in line 6 contain connotative diction. The word “pinnacle to heavenward” does not mean the top of tent reaching to heaven. Those words mean “too high” from the land. It describes the tent is too high to build.

Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 1, 2 and 7:
She is as in a field a silken tent
At midday when a sunny summer breeze
And signifies the sureness of the soul

The poet imagines that the pride of a person which is able to set something makes other people admire it. The poet describes the glory of silken tent imaginatively. As if it is a silken tent ever. People can set a silken tent only on sunny summer. This is an image of a girl who is completely at peace because everything in her life is going well.
1st stanza in line 13 and 14:
In the capriciousness of summer air
Is of the slightest bondage made aware.

The person imagines that the summer air can support the tent, so people can enjoy the situation. In fact, the summer air can not do anything to help it.
Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 9 and 10:
But strictly held by none, is loosely bound
By countless silken ties of love and thought

The usage of the words in line 9 “But strictly held by none, is loosely bound” can cause the association which directly concern with cooperation. It is impossible to set a huge tent alone. It will be done by amounts of people. The words in line 10 “By countless silken ties of love and thought” can cause the association which directly concern sincerely. People can make a silken tent with mind and sincerity. Otherwise, it can not be set.
Denotative Diction
1st stanza in line 4:
So that in guys it gently sways at ease
And its supporting central cedar pole,
That is its pinnacle to heavenward
And signifies the sureness of the soul,

Person enjoys the silken tent. He has a good time playing at tent and he can do anything with the sureness of the soul.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 1 associative diction, 1 connotative diction, 1 denotative diction and 2 imaginative diction.

Datum 7:
Desert Place

Snow falling and night falling fast oh fast
In a field I looked into going past,
And the ground almost covered smooth in snow,
But a few weeds and stubble showing last.

The woods around it have it – it is theirs.
All animals are smothered in their lairs.
I am too absent-spirited to count;
The loneliness includes me unawares.

And lonely as it is that loneliness
Will be more lonely are it will be less –
A blanker whiteness of benighted snow
With to expression, nothing to express.

They can not scare me with their empty spaces
Between stars – on stars where no human race is.
I have it in me so much nearer home
To scare myself with my own desert places.

In this poem, there are five kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Denotative Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 3 and 4:
And the ground almost covered smooth in snow
But a few weeds and stubble showing last
The word “showing lost” in this poem means “dying”. When snow falls, the plants are full of the snow. It can cause the plants dying. This can be seen in:
Concrete Diction
2nd stanza in line 7 and 8:
I am too absent spirited to count
The loneliness includes me unawares

The poet wants to concrete the lonely man in the desert places. It is completely surrounded with the feeling of loneliness. This can be seen in line 8 “The loneliness includes me unawares”. Actually, he does not want to be alone when the snow falls. He wants to enjoy the beautiful winter evening with the others.
Associative Diction
3rd stanza in line 11 and 12:
A blanker whiteness of benighted snow
With no expression, nothing to express

These words can cause association which directly concern with the emptiness that he feels. He can not express his feeling because the snow is a white blanket that covers up everything living.
Imaginative Diction
4th stanza in line 13 and 14:
They can not scare me with their empty spaces
Between stars – on stars where no human race is

In this poem, the poet wants to present the lonely situation in winter. He imagines or hopes that he is together with his friends there. In fact, he is lonely.
Denotative Diction
2nd stanza in line 5, 6, 7 and 8:
The woods around it have it – it is theirs.
All animals are smothered in their lairs.
I am too absent-spirited to count;
The loneliness includes me unawares.
The usage of words in line 6 “All animals are smothered in their lairs” really shows the situation in winter. Animals are reluctant to go out from their lairs since it is cold outside. They prefer to sleep. It is not only animals being lazy to go out but also he is too.
Discussion:
There are five kinds of diction in this datum, they are 1 associative dictions, 1 concrete diction, 1 imaginative dictions, 1 connotative diction and 1 denotative dictions.

Datum 8:
Come In
As I came to the edge of the woods,
Thrush music – hark!
Now if it was dusk outside,
Inside it was dark.

Too dark in the woods for a bird
By sleight of wing
To better its perch for the night,
Though it still could sing.

The last of the light of the sun
That had died in the west
Still lived for one song more
In thrush’s breast.

Far in the pillared dark
Thrush music went –
Almost like a call to come in
To the dark and lament.

But no, I was out for stars;
I would not come in.
I meant not even if asked,
And I hadn’t been.
In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Concrete Diction

Connotative Diction
3rd stanza in line 9 and 10:
The lost of the light of the sun
That had died in the west

The usages of words in this poem contain connotative diction. The word “died” does not mean to stop living. If the sun stops living, the world will be the end. “Died” in this poem means the sun had set in the west at that time, since the evening will come again.

The word “music” in line 14 “Thrush music went” has connotative meaning. “Music” here does not mean the arrangement of sounds in a pleasing sequence or combination to be sung or played on instrument. Since, the bird which is told in this poem, “music” means “warble”.
4th stanza in line 14:
Thrush music went
The word “went” has connotative meaning too. The word “went” in this poem does not mean to move or travel. According the context, the word “went” means to make the specified sound.
Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 2:
Thrush music – hark!
The usage of the words “Thrush music – hark!” can cause association which directly concern with happy feeling. Bird making the music feels happy. The bird having happy feeling always makes sound in order to give a sign to people that its music can build certain condition.


Imaginative Diction
5th stanza in line 18-20:
I would not come in
I meant not even if asked
And I hadn’t been

The bird imagines that person can be invited to enjoy its music. It wants to show its music. In fact, the person is reluctant to join with the bird’s pleasure.
Concrete Diction
2nd stanza in line 5, 6, 7 and 8:
Too dark in the woods for a bird
By sleight of wing
To better its perch for the night,
Though it still could sing.

The poet describes the beauty of the dark concretely. When the dusk comes, it is usually signed by the music of the bird. The music of bird is the warble. What the person sees and feels is described clearly. This can be seen this stanza.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum; they are 3 connotative dictions, 1 associative diction, 1 imaginative dictions, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 9:
Once by the Pacific
The shattered water made a misty din
Great waves looked over others coming in,
And thought of doing something to the shore
That water never did to land before
The clouds were low and hairy in the skies,
Like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes.
You could not tell, and yet it looked as if
The shore was lucky in being backed by cliff,
The cliff in being backed by continent;
It looked as if a night of dark intent
Was coming, and not only a night, an age.
Someone had better be prepared for rage.
There would be more than ocean-water broken
Before God’s last Put out the Light was spoken.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Imaginative Diction
• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Concrete Diction

Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 5 and 6:
The clouds were low and hairy in the skies,
Like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes.

The poet imagines about the angry face of God by pattern of clouds and skies is over low and feel near our head.
1st stanza in line 8, 9, 10 and 11:
The shore was lucky in being backed by cliff
The cliff in being backed by continent;
It looked as if a night of dark intent
Was coming, and not only a night, an age.

He imagines how if the ocean does not have cliff. He sees that the ocean exist due to the cliff. In fact, it is impossible that ocean does not have cliff. The cliff exists the help the lunge of water in order that the water does not flow to the land.
Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 12:
Someone had better be prepared for rage.
The word “rage” has connotative meaning. “Rage” here does not mean violent anger or an instance of this. The word ‘rage’ means tsunami. Because of this dangerous the most people must prepare to survive their selves. This can be seen in line 12.
1st stanza in line 13and 14:
There would be more than ocean – water broken.
Before God’s last Put out the Light was spoken.

The word ‘broken” has connotative meaning. “Broken” in this poem does not mean damaged or injured. “Broken” means fall in waves. This can be seen in these lines.
Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 3 and 4:
And thought of doing something to the shore
That water never did to land before

The words in line 3 “And thought of doing something to the shore” and line 4 “That water never did to land before” can cause the association which directly concern with “surprised feeling”. He is shocked to see the events which never happened before. He is worried about the result of it.


Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 1 and 2:
The shattered water made a misty din
Great waves looked over others coming in

The condition of someone’s fear and anxiety is described clearly. What the person feels really convinces. The shattered water and the great waves are coming in the land.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum; they are 2 imaginative dictions, 2 connotative dictions, 1 associative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 10:
Fire and Ice
Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I’ve tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Imaginative Diction
• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Concrete Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1 and 2:
Some say the world will end in fire
Some say in ice

This poem discusses about the end of the world, which it could end in either fire or ice. He relates the two elemental forces with the human emotions desire and hate, respectively, and suggests that while the chill of hate certainly has the power to end the world; his experiences have led him to believe that it is in the fires of passion that the end times will be found.
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 3 and 4:
From what I’ve tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.

He imagines that he views desire as something that consumes and destroys. The desire identical with what the people want. When people have to consume it, they can not to stop it. Desire does indeed have a way of consuming those it infects. It is difficult to cure desire.
1st stanza in line 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9:
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice
In these lines the poet makes the case for the destructive force of ice. He compares ice to hate. In lines 5 tell about desire of person that can not fill up and perish twice, it will be hate. It relates to us a view of hate as something that causes people to be rigid, unmoving and cold. Also ice has a tendency to encompass things and cause them to crack and break. The last line asserts that the two destructive forces are equally great. Fire, or passion, consumes and destroys quickly, leaving ashes in its wake. Ice or hate destroys more slowly.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 1 connotative dictions, and 2 imaginative diction.

Datum 11:
In Winter in the Woods Alone
In winter in the woods alone
Against the trees I go.
I mark a maple for my own
And lay the maple low.

At four o’clock I shoulder ax,
And in the afterglow
I link a line of shadowy tracks
Across the tinted snow.

I see for Nature no defeat
In one tree’s overthrow
Or for myself in my retreat
For yet another blow.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:



• Concrete Diction
• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction

Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 4 and 5:
And lay the maple low
At four a’ clock 1 shoulder ax

In this poem, what character of person is and what he feels are described concretely. He is strong and brave man because he can do the job alone. Besides, he is brave in the woods alone.
Connotative Diction
3rd stanza in line 9:
I see for nature no defeat
In one tree’s overthrow

The word “nature” has connotative meaning. The word “nature” in this poem does not mean the whole universe and every created, not artificial thing.
According to the context, the word “nature” means the forces that control the events of the physical world.
Associative Diction
3rd stanza in line 11 and 12:
Or for myself in my retreat
For yet another blow

“Or for myself in my retreat” line 11 and “For yet another blow” have association diction. Those words can cause the association which directly concern with lonely feeling. He feels alone in his life, so he can not see something new because of his isolation. He does not know whether there is a change in outer place or not.

Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 3 and 4:
I mark a maple for my own
And lay the maple low.

And 2nd stanza in line 7 and 8:
I link a line of shadowy tracks
Across the tinted snow.

He imagines that he has got friends to help him in the woods. In fact, he is just accompanied by shadowy tracks without knowing whose tracks they are. He does his job by himself.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 1 imaginative dictions, 1 connotative dictions, 1 associative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 12:
Reluctant
Out through the fields and the woods
And over the walls I have wended;
I have climbed the hills of view
And looked at the world, and descended;
I have come by the highway home,
And lo, it is ended.

The leaves are all dead on the ground,
Save those that the oak is keeping
To ravel them one by one
And let them go scraping and creeping
Out over the crusted snow,
When others are sleeping.

And the dead leaves lie huddled and still,
No longer blown hither and thither;
The last lone aster is gone;
The flowers of the witch-hazel wither;
The heart is still aching to seek,
But the feet question ‘Wither?’

Ah, when to the heart of man
Was it ever less than a treason
To go with the drift of things,
To yield with a grace to reason,
And bow and accept the end
Of a love or a season?

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:



• Connotative Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Concrete Diction

Connotative Diction
2nd stanza in line 12:
And let them go scraping and creeping
Out over the crusted snow,
When others are sleeping

The word “sleeping” has connotative meaning. The word “sleep” does not mean to be in state of sleepy. The word “sleeping” mean unconscious.
3rd stanza in line 15:
The last lone aster is gone
The word “gone” in line 15 has connotative meaning. It means dead. The last lone aster is dead in snow.
2nd stanza in line 7 and 8:
The leaves are all dead on the ground,
Save those that the oak is keeping
The “keeping” in line 8 has connotative meaning. “Keeping” does not mean to protect. According to the context, the word keeping means survive. When snow falls, the oak can survive well. The oak tree remains living in every season. So, it does not matter for oak to survive in winter.
Imaginative Diction
4th stanza in line 23 and 24:
And bow and accept the end
Of a love or a season?

He imagines being able to answer for what he surrenders to the reality. These words can cause the imaginatively concern with the submission of someone to face the reality. He can not do anything to pursuit his dream or choices, since the reality seems different. It is useless for him to struggle his wish and to find out the truth.
Concrete diction
4th stanza in line 20, 21, and 22:
Was it ever less than a treason
To go with the drifts of things
To yield with a grace to reason

What the man feel and think are described concretely. He tries to seek for the truth. He, however, still wonders about the fact. He feels when he is deceived, the world seems unfriendly to him. He must face a bitter reality without realizing what for he does it.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum; they are 1 imaginative dictions, 3 connotative dictions, and 1 concrete diction.
Datum 13:
The Gift Outright
The land was ours before we were the land’s.
She was our land more than a hundred years
Before we were her people. She was ours
In Massachusetts, in Virginia,
But we were England’s, still colonials,
Possessing what we still were unpossessed by,
Possessed by what we now no more possessed.
Something we were withholding made us weak
Until we found it was ourselves
We were withholding from our land of living,
And forthwith found salvation in surrender.
Such as we were we gave ourselves outright
(The deed of gift was many deed of war)
To the land vaguely realizing westward,
But still unstoried, artless, unenhanced,
Such as she was, such as she would become.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:



• Associative Diction
• Connotative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Imaginative Diction

Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 1 and 2:
The land was ours before we were the land’s
She was our land more than a hundred years

The word “ours” can cause the association which directly concern with “proud feeling”. He is proud of what he possesses. He does not want what he possess belongs to other people. He insists that what he possesses will remain his.
Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1:
The land was ours before we were the land’s

And 1st stanza in line 4 and 5:

In Massachusetts, in Virginia
But were England’s still colonials

The word “land” in this poem has connotative diction. In line 4 and 5, we can conclude that the “land” means America. America was colonialized by English in the past. Although America is free now, the culture of England remains. We can see from the usage of language in America, American English.
Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 10:
We were with holding from our land of living
And forthwith found salvation in surrender.

What the people feel about the land is described concretely. They feel that America can promise the better living. In another word, America is a promising land of living. People can earn a lot of money there.
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 15:
But still unstoried, artless, unenhanced
People imagine that everyone will view America as a beautiful place to live. In fact, people always connect America with the exist of war in all around the world because of its super power. So, most of people judge America as evil nation.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 1 imaginative dictions, 1 connotative dictions, 1 associative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 14:
Acquainted With the Night
I have been one acquainted with the night.
I have walked out in rain-and back in rain.
I have out walked the furthest city light.
I have looked down the saddest city lane.
I have passed by the watchman on his beat
And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain

I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet
When far away an interrupted cry
Came over houses from another street,
But not to call me back or say good-bye;
And further still at an unearthly height,
One luminary clock against the sky

Proclaimed the time was neither wrong not right
I have been one acquainted with the night.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:

• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Connotative Diction

Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 6 and 7:
I have passed by the watchman on his beat
And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain

The usage of the words in line 7: “And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain” can cause the association which directly concern with sad feeling. The dropping eyes are identical with sad feeling.
3rd stanza in line 10, 11 and 12:
But not to call me back or say good bye
And further still at an unearthly height,
One luminary clock against the sky

The words “But not to call me back or say good bye” can cause the association which directly concern with ignorance feeling. He feels that he is nobody. No one pays attention to him.
Imaginative Diction
4th stanza in line 14:
Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right
I have been one acquainted with the night.

The person imagines the exact time, so he knows what time it was. In fact the time was neither wrong nor right.
Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 3 and 5:
I have out walked the furthest city night
I have passed by the watchman on his beat

The poem is described concretely. What the person watches at night is really concrete. What the person does in first experience with night is really described. The poet wants to concrete the person world at night.

Connotative Diction
3rd stanza in line 10, 11 and 12:
But not to call me back or say good bye
And further still at an unearthly height,
One luminary clock against the sky

The word “luminary clock” does not mean clock for leading person. In this poem, luminary clock means clock set in high building in the downtown in order to inform the time.
1st stanza in line 4:
I have looked down the saddest city lane
The word “saddest” does not mean showing or causing sorrow or regret, unhappy. According to the context, “saddest” means broken.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum; they are 1 imaginative dictions, 2 connotative dictions, 2 associative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 15:
The Pasture
I’m going out to clean the pasture spring;
I’ll only stop to rake the leaves away
(And wait to watch the water clear, I may):
I sha’n’t the gone long. -You come too.

I’m going out to fetch the little calf
That’s standing by the mother. It’s so young,
It totters when she licks it with her tongue.
I sha’n’t be gone long. -You come too.


In this poem, there are three kinds of diction:

• Concrete Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction

Concrete Diction
2nd stanza in line 5 and 6:
I’m going out to fetch the little calf
That’s standing by the mother, it’s so young

The poet wants to describe the condition of the pasture in spring. It is described clearly that in spring, the pasture is foil of dry leaves. The dry leaves spread everywhere, so person wants to clean the pasture. Besides, in spring animals like to play in the pasture. It is not difficult to find animals especially, the cattle these.

Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 1, 2, 3, and 4:
I’m going out to clean the pasture spring;
I’ll only stop to rake the leaves away
(And wait to watch the water clear, I may):
I shan’t be gone long. – You come too

Association diction has characteristic to arise the readers’ consciousness with the other words which have relation. The used of the word “I shan’t be gone long. – You come too” in line 4 and 8 can cause the association which directly concern with happy feeling. Someone may not offer someone else to join something, if it is something bad. Someone invites someone else to follow what he does because he wants to share the joyness together.
Imaginative Diction
2nd stanza in line 5:
I’m going out to fetch the little calf
That’s standing by the mother. It’s so young,
It totters when she licks it with her tongue.

In this poem, the poet wants to present the joyful situation in spring which worm and friendly. The quite atmosphere is supported by the usage of the words in line 5. In spring cattle is easily found in pasture. It can be a pleasure for someone to do that, since in another season it is hard to do that.
Discussion:
There are three kinds of diction in this datum; they are 1 imaginative dictions, 1 associative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 16:
The Road Not Taken
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same.

And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.

I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I-
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.

In this poem, there are four kinds of dictions:


• Connotative Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Concrete Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1:
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,

The word “roads” has connotative meaning. The word “road” does not mean a way between places, especially one with a prepared surface which vehicles can use. In this poem, according to the context, road means a choice which people do not take.
The word “wood” in line 1 has connotative meaning. “Wood” is not on area of land, smaller than a forest, covered with growing treas. “Wood” in this poem is a condition of people which is faced by two confusing choices. People feel dizzy and uncomfortable if they must choose the better of two things.
The word “yellow” also has connotative meaning. “Yellow” means “old”. People face the problem which is already old. They can not solve it because they are doubtful to choose two choices.
2nd stanza in line 8:
Because it was grassy and wanted wear
The word “grassy” in line 8 does not mean covered with grass. According to the context, it means the choice that perhaps the people take will have a lot of odds.
The word ‘wear” in line 8 is a noun. In this poem, it means survival. The people’s choice perhaps will help them survive in the future.
1st stanza in line 4:
And looked down one as far as I could

The word “looked down” in line 4 means “observe”. People observe first which choice they will take. It is good enough for them or not or it takes advantage or not. It is important to do than people regret what they take in future time.
Associative Diction
3rd stanza in line 15:
I doubted if I should ever come back.

The words in line 15 can cause a meaning that people are not sure whether their choice is right or not.
Imaginative Diction
3rd stanza in line 13:
Oh, I kept the first for another day!

People imagine that their choice is right for them because they do not know exactly what happens in the next time. They are convinced that their first choice will last forever.
Concrete Diction
4th stanza in line 19:
I took the one less traveled by
What people feel after they have made their choice is described concretely. They consider first whether their choice is right or not.
4th stanza in line 20:
And that has made all the different
They also realize that their choice may make different for their life.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 6 connotative dictions, 1 imaginative dictions, 1 associative diction, and 2 concrete diction.

Datum 17:
Bereft
When had I heard the wind before
Change like this to a deeper a roar?
What would it take my standing there for,
Holding open a restive door,
Looking down hill to a frothy shore?
Summer was past and day was past
Somber clouds in the west where massed.
Out in the porch’s sagging floor,
Leaves good up in a coil and hissed,
Blindly struck at my knee and missed.
Something sinister in the tone
Told me my secret must be known:
Word I was in the house alone
Somehow must have gotten abroad,
What I was in my life alone,
Word I had no on left but God.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Associative Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 8, 9 and 10:
Out in the porch’s sagging floor,
Leaves good up in a coil and hissed,
Blindly struck at my knee and missed.

The word “hissed” in line 9 has connotative meaning. It does not mean to make a sound like a long “s” because it is impossible for leaves to make sound like that. According the context, “hissed” means sound of rustling because of blowing wind.
The word “got up” does not mean to rise, since leaves are objects not human being. The appropriate meaning of “got up” is to fly. The leaves fly because of wind.
Concrete Diction
1st stanza in line 13:
Word I was in the house alone
Somehow must have gotten abroad,
What I was in my life alone,
Word I had no on left but God.

The poem describes the loneliness of person. What happened in his life is described concretely in this poem. He wants to go from there and the only his purpose is the way of God.
1st stanza in line 1 and 2:
When had I heard the wind before
Change like this to a deeper a roar?

He is at home alone without someone who accompanies him. He only heard the wind flying up the leaves.
1st stanza in line 15:
What I was in my life alone
The existence of leaves striking his knee, he really feels that he is alone. This condition comes up perhaps he sees the leaves flying away in a group. He companies his life which is lonely with a group of leaves which is in togetherness.
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 16:
Word I had no one left but God

He imagines that he is accompanied by someone. In fact, he is alone. It commonly happens in human’s life that when he is alone, he feels close to the God. For him, God is the only friend she has.
Associative Diction
1st stanza in line 11 and 12:
Something sinister in the tone
Told me my secret must be known
The word “sinister” in line 11 may cause an association with “scared feeling”. When people hear sinister sound, they may be frightened. Meanwhile, they do not know exactly the cause of sinister sound.
1st stanza in line 7:
Somber clouds in the west where massed
The word “somber” in line 7 may cause an association with “sad feeling”. Because somber is close to unwell condition of someone.
Discussion:
There are four kinds of diction in this datum, they are 2 connotative dictions, 1 imaginative dictions, 2 associative diction, and 3 concrete diction.

Datum 18:
The Draft Horse
With a lantern that wouldn’t burn
In too frail a buggy we drove
Behind too heavy a horse
Through a pitch-dark limitless grove

And a man came out of the trees
And took our horse by the head
And reaching back to his ribs
Deliberately stabbed him dead.

The ponderous beast went down
With a crack of a broken shaft.
And the night drew through the trees
In one long invidious draft.

The most unquestioning pair
That ever accepted fate
And the least disposed to ascribe
Any more than we had to hate

We assumed that the man himself
Or someone he had to obey
Wanted us to get down
And walk the rest of the way.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Imaginative Diction
• Associative Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 3:
Behind too heavy a horse
The word “horse” is connotative. It is not really kind of animal, but it is a powerful man with his burden of responsibility.
2nd stanza in line 5 and 6:
And a man came out of the trees
And took our horse by the head

In this poem, it is told that a powerful man (authority) has a big responsibility to take care of his people. In society, a powerful man is always described as a horse. To tell the truth, a powerful man always has enemy who wants to get him down. It can be seen from line 5 and 6.
3rd stanza in line 11:
And the night drew through the trees

The word “night” in line 11 has connotative meaning. “Night” in this poem means “suffer”. A powerful man is hurt by the beast. The people only can see his suffer. His people can not do anything.
Concrete Diction
4th stanza in line 14, 15, and 16:
That ever accepted fate
And the least disposed to ascribe
Any more than we had to hate

Human in the world must face his fate. In this poem, how man reacts to his fate is described concretely. Sometimes people can not accept his fate if it is bad for them. However, he can not do anything. The fate can not be avoided, but it must be faced although it is bitter.
Imaginative Diction

5th stanza in line 20:
And walk the rest of the way.

People imagine that the authority will not leave them away. In fact, the authority has been dead. Thus, the people must continue their life themselves.
Associative Diction
3rd in line 11 and 12:
And the night drew through the trees
In one long invidious draft.

The word “invidious” can cause the association which directly concern with unpleasure feeling. The word invidious is identical with bad condition.



Discussion:

There are four kinds of diction in this datum; they are 3 connotative dictions, 1 imaginative dictions, 1 associative diction, and 1 concrete diction.

Datum 19:
Provide, Provide
The witch that came (the withered hag)
To wash the steps with pail and rag,
Was once the beauty Abishag,

The picture pride of Hollywood
Too many fall from great and good
For you to doubt the likelihood

Die early and avoid the fate.
Or if predestined to die late,
Make up your mind to die in state.

Make the whole stock exchange your own!
If need be occupy a throne,
Where nobody can call you crone

Some have relied on what they knew;
Others on being simply true.
What worked for them might work for you

No memory of having starred
Atones for later disregard
Or keeps the end from being hard.

Better to go down dignified
With boughten friendship at your side
Than none at all. Provide, provide!

In this poem, there are three kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Imaginative Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1, 2 and 3:
The witch that came (the withered hag)
To wash the steps with pail and rag,
Was once the beauty Abishag,

The word “witch” is connotative meaning. The word “witch” in line 1 is not the real meaning of a woman thought to have evil magic powers. In this poem, witch means ugly poor woman, who was formerly beautiful and successful woman. Perhaps, because of her failure to maintain her successful, now she is just a poor woman whose job is as a cleaning service.
The word “witch” is used in this poem to represent the condition of woman which changes rapidly. A witch used to spell something or someone changes in a short time. So, the life of woman in the poem which turns into a poor woman in a short time is represented by a witch.
The change of woman’s life style can be seen from:
The picture pride of Hollywood
Too many fall from great and good

2nd stanza in line 6:
For you to doubt the likelihood

The conclusion is, formerly the woman is an actress in Hollywood who is successful and beautiful. Hollywood is well-known for its film and entertainment. Many people can keep their success, but many of them are also failed to keep it. All probably can happen in Hollywood, since the competition there is so eight.
3rd in stanza in line 9:
Make up your mind to die in state.

The word “in state” in line 9 is also connotative meaning. In this poem, the word “in state” does not mean “die” in ‘America”. I wrote America because Hollywood is located in America and it is the only one. The word “in state” means in good condition especially good health.
In Hollywood the life style of actress and actors is luxurious. They almost go to the party every time they want. Their life is extravagant with money. Since, their life is so free, they do not realize that their health is threatened. If they do not maintain their health, they can easily die because of serious illness.
Concrete Diction
4th stanza in line 10, 11 and 12:
Make the whole stock exchange your own!
If need be occupy a throne,
Where nobody can call you crone

What happened in Hollywood is described concretely. In Hollywood, if someone wants to survive and to be recognized for a long time, he must have a lot of money to support his expensive life style. Otherwise, he will be ignored. In addition, he must have a good career.

In Hollywood, the most of people are successful. The most of people will appreciate them. One another word, the strongest is the winner.

Imaginative Diction
6th stanza in line 16:
No memory of having starred
Atones for later disregard
Or keeps the end from being hard.

He imagines that although the person is not a star anymore in Hollywood, he will be remembered. In fact, in society people will recognize only to the ones who are now in the top. People are easier to remember the ones who appear on TV frequently than the former actress who seldom performs on public. Although the actress formerly was a great star.
Discussion:

There are three kinds of diction in this datum; they are 4 connotative dictions, 1 imaginative dictions, and 1 concrete diction

Datum 20:
The Need of Being Versed in Country Things
The house had gone to bring again
To the midnight sky a sunset glow.
Now the chimney was all of the house that stood,
Like a pistil after the petals go.

The barn opposed across the way,
That would have joined the house in flame
Had it been the will of the wind, was left
To bear forsaken the place’s name.

No more it opened with all one end
For teams that came by the stony road
To drum on the floor with scurrying hoofs
And brush the mow with the summer load.


The birds that came to it through the air
At broken windows flew out and in,
Their murmur more like the sigh we sigh
From too much dwelling on what has been.

Yet for them the lilac renewed its leaf,
And the aged elm, though touched with fire;
And the dry pump flung up an awkward arm;
And the fence post carried a strand of wire.

For them there was really nothing sad.
But though they rejoiced in the nest they kept,
One had to be versed in country things
Not to believe the phoebes wept.

In this poem, there are four kinds of diction:


• Connotative Diction
• Concrete Diction
• Associative Diction
• Imaginative Diction

Connotative Diction
1st stanza in line 1 and 2:
The house had gone to bring again
To the midnight sky a sunset glow.

The word “sunset glow” in line 2 has connotative meaning. It is impossible that in the midnight sky there is a sunset glow. Related to line 1 which tells the house burning (the house had gone to bring again), a sunset glow means fire. A sunset has reddish yellow as fire. So, a sunset glow represents fire. The house cannot stand anymore, since it is burned. The house which is burned can not be built anymore.

3rd stanza in line 10:
No more it opened with all one end
For teams that came by the stony road
To drum on the floor with scurrying hoofs
And brush the mow with the summer load.

The word “teams” in line 10 means fire brigade, because the teams that handle the fire are fire brigade.
The word “Stony road” in line 11 is connotative. Stony does not mean full of, covered in or having stones. “Stony road” means the way of fire brigade works which is without feeling or sympathy. Because their steps are like to make a sound like a drum by beating the floor continuously.
The word “hoofs” in line 12 means hard steps made by fire brigade. It does not mean the hard part of the foot of certain animals. Since the steps of fire brigade are hard like hoofs, the author compares the steps of fire brigade to hoofs.
The word “load” in line 13 does not mean anything that is being carried or waiting to be carried, especially something heavy. In this poem, according to the context load means a weight of responsibility, worry or grief. In this case, the responsibility of a fire brigade.
5th stanza in line 18:
And the aged elm, though touched with fire
The word “Aged” in line 18 means very old.
Concrete Diction
This can be seen in line 3, 5, 6, 14, and 20:
Now the chimney was all of the house that stood,
The barn opposed across the way,
That would have joined the house in flame
At broken windows flew out and in,
And the fence post carried a strand of wire.

The condition of house which is burned is described concretely. The things which are burned and the left thing are described concretely.
3rd stanza in line 12:
And brush the mow with the summer load.

All things are broken but the chimney is still in good condition. In western society, the fire brigade can work fast and very helpful. They work out to help to overcome the fire. In the poem, what the fire brigade does is described well.
Associative Diction
4th stanza in line 15 and 16:
From too much dwelling on what has been.
Their murmur more like the sigh we sigh

These words can create an association which is concerning with “sad feeling”. Since the sigh indicates that there is burden to face and it is impossible for us to be happy.
Imaginative Diction
1st stanza in line 1and 2:
To the midnight sky a sunset glow
The house had gone to bring again
The person imagines that the house can be fixed again, so he can live in. in fact, it is already damaged. It can not be fixed anymore since it has a great damage because of fire. If he makes another house, he can. However, to make the burned house to stand up again, it is impossible.

Discussion:

There are three kinds of diction in this datum, they are 6 connotative dictions, 1 associative diction, 1 imaginative dictions, and 2 concrete diction





CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this chapter, the researcher presents some conclusion related to the findings discussed in the previous chapter. The researcher also presents the suggestions to the some parties that have relation with this study.

5. 1 Conclusion
Based on the problem of the study, results of analysis can be concluding as follows:


1. There are five kinds of diction used in Robert Frost’s poems. They are connotative diction, denotative diction, imaginative diction, associative diction and concrete diction.
2. From the data analysis above, it is found that connotative diction is the most dominant used in Robert Frost’s poems. He used connotative because the function of Robert Frost’s poem is to express his feeling which indicates attitudes and values which complete the meaning by feeling and intelligence. He has good ability to describe something in choosing a words, which make his poems are attractive and natural for the reader.



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5. 2 Suggestion
After finishing this analysis, the researcher has suggestions for the future researcher who are interested in analyzing the same topic about kinds of diction on poems. The researcher suggests for future researchers use the data more completely and different object and suggests:


1. To study deeper about the meaning of dictions used in poetry.
2. To study and to find dictions in other poems.

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